Inherited genetic risk factors play a role in multiple myeloma (MM), yet considerable missing heritability exists. Rare risk variants at genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci are a new avenue to explore. Pleiotropy between lymphoid neoplasms (LNs) has been suggested in family history and genetic studies, but no studies have interrogated sequencing for pleiotropic genes or rare risk variants. Sequencing genetically enriched cases can help discover rarer variants. We analyzed exome sequencing in familial or early-onset MM cases to identify rare, functionally relevant variants near GWAS loci for a range of LNs. A total of 149 distinct and significant LN GWAS loci have been published. We identified six recurrent, rare, potentially deleterious variants within 5 kb of significant GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms in 75 MM cases. Mutations were observed in BTNL2, EOMES, TNFRSF13B, IRF8, ACOXL and TSPAN32. All six genes replicated in an independent set of 255 early-onset MM or familial MM or precursor cases. Expansion of our analyses to the full length of these six genes resulted in a list of 39 rare and deleterious variants, seven of which segregated in MM families. Three genes also had significant rare variant burden in 733 sporadic MM cases compared with 935 control individuals: IRF8 (P = 1.0 × 10-6), EOMES (P = 6.0 × 10-6) and BTNL2 (P = 2.1 × 10-3). Together, our results implicate six genes in MM risk, provide support for genetic pleiotropy between LN subtypes and demonstrate the utility of sequencing genetically enriched cases to identify functionally relevant variants near GWAS loci.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology