Sensor Technology for Rate-Adaptive Pacing and Hemodynamic Optimization

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Rate-adaptive pacing has become a standard for the majority of patients requiring permanent pacing. Even if rate-adaptive parameters are not initially required, having it as a programmable feature for patients who may develop chronotropic incompetence over time provides important flexibility for the patient and caregiver. Although multiple sensors have been utilized, accelerometer-based rate-adaptive pacing is the predominant sensor and minute ventilation also remains an important sensor for rate-adaptive pacing. Others such as peak endocardial acceleration and right ventricular impedance-based rate-adaptation are also used either in permanent pacemakers or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Programming rate-adaptive sensors requires special considerations for most patients and a thorough familiarity with programmable parameters to adjust the sensor is important. Sensors initially used only for rate-adaptive pacing are now being incorporated into CRT devices for the purposes of auto-optimization of hemodynamics. Although there is limited availability of hemodynamic sensors in CRT devices at this time, this will undoubtedly be increasingly important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiac Pacing, Defibrillation and Resynchronization
Subtitle of host publicationA Clinical Approach
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9780470658338
StatePublished - Dec 17 2012


  • Accelerometer
  • Activity
  • Closed-loop vs. open-loop sensor
  • Indications for rate-adaptive pacing
  • Minute ventilation
  • Peak endocardial acceleration
  • Programmable parameters
  • Rate-adaptive pacing and CRT
  • Right ventricular impedance based sensor
  • Sensors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Sensor Technology for Rate-Adaptive Pacing and Hemodynamic Optimization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this