Fields of medicine and life sciences are constantly evolving and striving for improved understanding of how cells function at an individual level, small ensemble level, and tissue level. Such improved understanding will translate into developing therapeutic strategies as well as approaches for disease diagnosis. Behavior of cells at all levels is shaped in significant part by secreted molecules that serve as cues for proliferation, migration, death, and other cell life-altering events. Improved understanding of what signals released when by which cells requires novel tools for local detection of cell-secreted molecules. This paper reviews recent efforts by bioengineering and bioanalytical chemistry communities to develop biosensors for detecting molecules in extracellular space. Multiple topics including antibody-, enzyme- and aptamer-based biosensors for cell analysis as well as sensor miniaturization approaches are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemistry
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology