Selection and evaluation of optimal two-dimensional CAIPIRINHA Kernels applied to time-resolved three-dimensional CE-MRA

Paul T. Weavers, Eric A. Borisch, Stephen J. Riederer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose To develop and validate a method for choosing the optimal two-dimensional CAIPIRINHA kernel for subtraction contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and estimate the degree of image quality improvement versus that of some reference acceleration parameter set at R ≥ 8. Methods A metric based on patient-specific coil calibration information was defined for evaluating optimality of CAIPIRINHA kernels as applied to subtraction CE-MRA. Evaluation in retrospective studies using archived coil calibration data from abdomen, calf, foot, and hand CE-MRA exams was accomplished with an evaluation metric comparing the geometry factor (g-factor) histograms. Prospective calf, foot, and hand CE-MRA studies were evaluated with vessel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Results Retrospective studies show g-factor improvement for the selected CAIPIRINHA kernels was significant in the feet, moderate in the abdomen, and modest in the calves and hands. Prospective CE-MRA studies using optimal CAIPIRINHA show reduced noise amplification with identical acquisition time in studies of the feet, with minor improvements in the hands and calves. Conclusion A method for selection of the optimal CAIPIRINHA kernel for high (R ≥ 8) acceleration CE-MRA exams given a specific patient and receiver array was demonstrated. CAIPIRINHA optimization appears valuable in accelerated CE-MRA of the feet and to a lesser extent in the abdomen. Magn Reson Med 73:2234-2242, 2015.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2234-2242
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • acceleration
  • optimization
  • parallel imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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