Santiago Ramón y cajal and harvey cushing: Two forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery

Grettel J. Zamora-Berridi, Courtney Pendleton, Gabriel Ruiz, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Alfredo Quiones-Hinojosa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To summarize the extraordinary accomplishments, and the commonalities, between Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing. Methods: Existing literature describing the lives and achievements of Ramón y Cajal and Cushing, as well as personal communication, and the surgical records of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912, were reviewed. Results: Both Ramón y Cajal and Cushing were men of unusually broad interests and talents, and these shared characteristics undoubtedly influenced the career paths and scientific investigations they pursued. Although Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Harvey Williams Cushing never directly interacted, the links between them can be traced through some of their disciples, including Pío del Río Hortega, Wilder Penfield, and Percival Bailey. Conclusions: Ramón y Cajal and Cushing are widely considered the forefathers of neuroscience and neurosurgery, respectively, and their discoveries have made lasting impressions on both the scientific and medical communities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)466-476
Number of pages11
JournalWorld neurosurgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Cajal
  • Cushing
  • Neuroscience
  • Neurosurgery
  • Physician-scientist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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