Sample content of kinesthetic educational training: Reducing scattered X-ray exposures to interventional physician operators of fluoroscopy

William Pavlicek, William F. Sensakovic, Yuxiang Zhou, Robert G. Paden, Anshuman Panda, Justin Hines, Sailendra G. Naidu, Rahmi Oklu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Content used by Medical Physicists for fluoroscopy safety training to staff is deliverable via several formats, that is, online content or a live audience slide presentations. Here, we share one example of a kinesthetic (live, hands-on simulation) educational program in use at our facility for some time (~10 years). In this example, the format and content specifically target methods of reducing physician operator exposures from scattered x rays. A kinesthetic format identifies and promotes the adoption of exposure-reducing behaviors. Key kinesthetic elements of this type of training include: physician hands-on measurements of radiation levels at locations specific to their standing positions (e.g., primary arterial access points) in the room using handheld exposure rate meters, measurement of exposure rate reduction to physicians provided by using personal protective equipment, that is, wearable aprons, hanging lead drapes, and pull-down shields. Physician choice of procedure-specific tableside selectable controls affecting exposure rate from optional fluoroscopy, Cine or digital subtraction angiography (DSA), along with comparative measured contribution to physician exposure is demonstrated. The inverse square exposure rate reduction to physicians when stepping back from the table during DSA is a key observation. Kinesthetic simulations in the rooms used by physicians have been found to provide the highest level of understanding giving rise to adoption of practices that are impactful for physicians. Specific training scripts are in place for physician sub-specialization in interventional radiology, cardiology, neurosurgery, vascular surgery, and gastroenterology. This training is used for new physician staff while classroom presentations (whose content mimics in room training) are used with staff who have had previously had in room training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-208
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of applied clinical medical physics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020


  • X-ray scatter
  • fluoroscopy
  • interventional fluoroscopy
  • kinesthetic training
  • physician exposures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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