Safety Profile of IBD Therapeutics: Infectious Risks

Waqqas Afif, Edward V. Loftus

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Over the last decade, the medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been revolutionized, with increasing use of both immunomodulatory and biologic medications. Corticosteroids have increasingly been associated with an elevated risk of serious and opportunistic infections, both independently and in combination with immunomodulator and biologic agents. There are limited data on the infectious risk of immunomodulators. It is unclear if anti-tumor necrosis factor agents increase overall infectious risk in patients with IBD, but the available literature has demonstrated an increased risk of opportunistic infections, particularly in terms of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. Combination therapy likely increases the risk of opportunistic infections in patients with IBD but this has not yet been conclusively proved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-709
Number of pages19
JournalGastroenterology Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2009


  • Anti-tumor necrosis factor
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immunomodulator
  • Infection
  • Inflammatory bowel disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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