Safety, energy efficiency, and cost efficacy of the C-Leg for transfemoral amputees: A review of the literature

M. Jason Highsmith, Jason T. Kahle, Dennis R. Bongiorni, Bryce S. Sutton, Shirley Groer, Kenton R. Kaufman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


The purpose of this paper was to review the literature through a structured literature review and provide a grade of recommendation for patient safety, gait energy efficiency, and cost effectiveness of the C-Leg microprocessor- controlled prosthetic knee for transfemoral amputees. Medline (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) data bases were searched to identify potentially pertinent studies within the 19952009 time range. Studies were screened and sorted. Pertinent studies were rated for methodologic quality and for risk of bias. Following assessment of methodologic quality and bias risk, the level of evidence and a grade of recommendation was determined for each of three categories: Safety, energy efficiency, and cost effectiveness. A total of 18 articles were determined to be pertinent: seven for safety, eight for energy efficiency, and three for cost effectiveness. Methodologic quality was low with a moderate risk of bias in the safety and energy effectiveness categories. Studies in cost effectiveness received high scores for methodologic quality. Though methodologic quality varied across the selected topics, there was sufficient evidence to suggest increased efficacy of the C-Leg in the areas of safety, energy efficiency and cost when compared with other prosthetic knees for transfemoral amputees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-377
Number of pages16
JournalProsthetics and Orthotics International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2010


  • Prosthetics
  • QALY
  • grade of recommendation
  • levels of evidence
  • microprocessor knee
  • rehabilitation of prostheses users

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Rehabilitation


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