Permanently implanted devices that deliver electrical stimulation are increasingly used to treat patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Primary care physicians, neurologists, and epilepsy clinicians may encounter patients with a variety of implanted neuromodulation devices in the course of clinical care. Due to the rapidly changing landscape of available epilepsy-related neurostimulators, there may be uncertainty related to how these devices should be handled during imaging procedures and perioperative care. We review the safety and management of epilepsy-related implanted neurostimulators that may be encountered during imaging and surgery. We provide a summary of approved device labeling and recommendations for the practical management of these devices to help guide clinicians as they care for patients treated with bioelectronic medicine.
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