Risk of Early Versus Later Rebleeding from Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas with Cortical Venous Drainage

Andrew J. Durnford, Danyal Akarca, David Culliford, John Millar, Ridhima Guniganti, Enrico Giordan, Waleed Brinjikji, Ching Jen Chen, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael Levitt, Adam J. Polifka, Colin P. Derdeyn, Edgar A. Samaniego, Amanda Kwasnicki, Ali Alaraj, Adriaan R.E. Potgieser, Stephanie Chen, Yoshiteru Tada, Ryan Phelps, Adib AblaJunichiro Satomi, Robert M. Starke, J. Marc C. Van Dijk, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Minako Hayakawa, Bradley Gross, W. Christopher Fox, Louis Kim, Jason Sheehan, Giuseppe Lanzino, Akash P. Kansagra, Rose Du, Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, Diederik O. Bulters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with cortical venous drainage are rare lesions that can present with hemorrhage. A high rate of rebleeding in the early period following hemorrhage has been reported, but published long-term rates are much lower. No study has examined how risk of rebleeding changes over time. Our objective was to quantify the relative incidence of rebleeding in the early and later periods following hemorrhage. Methods: Patients with dural arteriovenous fistula and cortical venous drainage presenting with hemorrhage were identified from the multinational CONDOR (Consortium for Dural Fistula Outcomes Research) database. Natural history follow-up was defined as time from hemorrhage to first treatment, rebleed, or last follow-up. Rebleeding in the first 2 weeks and first year were compared using incidence rate ratio and difference. Results: Of 1077 patients, 250 met the inclusion criteria and had 95 cumulative person-years natural history follow-up. The overall annualized rebleed rate was 7.3% (95% CI, 3.2-14.5). The incidence rate of rebleeding in the first 2 weeks was 0.0011 per person-day; an early rebleed risk of 1.6% in the first 14 days (95% CI, 0.3-5.1). For the remainder of the first year, the incidence rate was 0.00015 per person-day; a rebleed rate of 5.3% (CI, 1.7-12.4) over 1 year. The incidence rate ratio was 7.3 (95% CI, 1.4-37.7; P, 0.026). Conclusions: The risk of rebleeding of a dural arteriovenous fistula with cortical venous drainage presenting with hemorrhage is increased in the first 2 weeks justifying early treatment. However, the magnitude of this increase may be considerably lower than previously thought. Treatment within 5 days was associated with a low rate of rebleeding and appears an appropriate timeframe.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2340-2345
Number of pages6
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • drainage
  • fistula
  • hemorrhage
  • incidence
  • natural history

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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