Background: Rhino-orbital-cerebral disease is a significant manifestation of zygomycosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, its characteristics and outcome are not well addressed. Methods: SOT recipients with zygomycosis as per the European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group criteria in a cohort study at our centers published previously and those identified with a PubMed search from the 1950s to November 2009 were studied. Patients with mycosis involving the sinuses, orbits, or central nervous system (CNS) were included. Results: Patients comprised a total of 90 SOT recipients with rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, including 13 in our cohort and 77 in the literature. CNS disease occurred in 57% (51 of 90). Overall mortality was 52.3% (46 of 88), and the mortality in patients with CNS disease was 73.5% (36 of 49). In logistic regression analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.21, P=0.002) was associated with a higher mortality rate, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, P=0.006) and surgery (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.94, P=0.043) were independently associated with an improved survival even when controlled for CNS involvement and the era of diagnosis of disease. ConclusionS: Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, particularly CNS disease, is associated with substantial mortality rate in SOT recipients. Older age is a significant risk factor for mortality, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B and surgery improved outcomes.
- Solid organ transplant
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