Retractors and principles of exposure

Pierre Alain Clavien, Michael G. Sarr, Tim Gessmann, Markus Schäfer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Adequate exposure of the target organ represents a laudable prerequisite of every successful operation. Therefore, it is worthwhile to be equipped with different retractors and to invest enough time intraoperatively to optimize exposure. Basic principles of exposure have recently been challenged by the advent of minimally invasive surgery. However, minimally invasive surgery has only changed the means of surgical access; the procedures performed at the target organs remain largely unchanged. In contrast to open surgery, exposure during laparoscopy is achieved predominantly by patient position and trocar placement. Retractor systems are less important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAtlas of Upper Gastrointestinal and Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9783540200048
StatePublished - 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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