Resilience Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study

Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Jennifer H. Marwitz, Adam P. Sima, Thomas F. Bergquist, Douglas Johnson-Greene, Elizabeth R. Felix, Gale G. Whiteneck, Laura E. Dreer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective To examine resilience at 3 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Cross-sectional analysis of an ongoing observational cohort. Setting Five inpatient rehabilitation centers, with 3-month follow-up conducted primarily by telephone. Participants Persons with TBI (N=160) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model System study with 3-month follow-up completed. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Results Resilience scores were lower than those of the general population. A multivariable regression model, adjusting for other predictors, showed that higher education, absence of preinjury substance abuse, and less anxiety at follow-up were significantly related to greater resilience. Conclusions Analysis suggests that lack of resilience may be an issue for some individuals after moderate to severe TBI. Identifying persons most likely at risk for low resilience may be useful in planning clinical interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)708-713
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • Brain injuries
  • Rehabilitation
  • Resilience, psychological

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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