Residential treatment compared with outpatient treatment for tobacco use and dependence

J. Taylor Hays, Ivana T. Croghan, Darrell R. Schroeder, Michael V. Burke, Jon O. Ebbert, David D. Mcfadden, Richard D. Hurt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of outpatient vs residential treatment for tobacco dependence in a large referral practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 2 cohorts of cigarette smokers who received either comprehensive outpatient or intensive 8-day residential treatment for tobacco dependence between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007. Self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence from smoking at 6 months was obtained via telephone interview. Logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of increased abstinence with residential treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 4327 cigarette smokers received comprehensive outpatient treatment for tobacco dependence, and 226 smokers received treatment in an intensive 8-day residential program. Compared with outpatients, residential patients smoked more cigarettes per day (mean ± SD, 31.1±14.4 vs 21.2±11.2), had more severe nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score, 6.9±2.0 vs 5.1±2.3), and were more likely to have been treated for alcoholism (58/222 [26%] vs 649/4327 [15%]) or depression (124/222 [56%] vs 1817/4327 [42%]; P<.001 for all comparisons). The 6-month smoking abstinence rate was significantly higher for residential patients compared with outpatients (115/222 [52%] vs 1168/4327 [27%]; unadjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-3.9), with similar findings after adjusting for baseline characteristics (adjusted odds ratio, 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-4.9). CONCLUSION: Compared with smokers who received outpatient treatment, those who received residential treatment had more severe tobacco dependence. Residential treatment for tobacco dependence was associated with a significantly greater odds of 6-month smoking abstinence compared with outpatient treatment among smokers in a referral clinic setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-209
Number of pages7
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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