CD28 is required to achieve optimal T cell activation to an Ag. To determine the role CD28 costimulation plays in collagen-induced arthritis, we have generated DQ8 transgenic, CD28-deicient mice. DQ8 mice deficient for CD28 had comparable numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells as DQ8.CD28+/+ mice. DQ8.CD28-/- mice develop collagen-induced arthritis with delayed onset and less severity than DQ8.CD28+/+ mice. T cells from DQ8.CD28-/- mice did not respond to type II collagen efficiently in vitro, although the response to DQ8-restricted peptides was similar to that in the parent mice. There was no functional defect in T cells as observed by proliferation with Con A. Cytokine analysis from in vitro study showed the production of high levels of the inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ, in response to type II collagen. We observed an increase in CD4+CD28 -NKG2D+ cells after immunization, suggesting an important role for cells bearing this receptor in the disease process. CD28-/- mice also have an increased number of DX5+ cells compared with CD28+/+ mice, which can lead to the production of high levels of IFN-γ. DQ8.CD28-/- mice had an increased number of cells bearing other costimulatory markers. Cells from DQ8.CD28-/- mice exhibited a lower proliferation rate and were resistant to activation-induced cell death compared with DQ8.CD28+/+ mice. This study supports the idea that CD28 plays a crucial role in the regulation of arthritis. However, in the absence of CD28 signaling, other costimulatory molecules can lead to the development of disease, thus indicating that the requirement for CD28 may not be absolute in the development of arthritis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy