Remote robotic percutaneous coronary intervention: An animal feasibility study

Mackram F. Eleid, Park P. Zheng, Rajiv Gulati, Per Bergman, Nicholas Kottenstette, Yao Li, Amir Lerman, Gurpreet S. Sandhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and safety of robotic PCI performed using an off-siteremote-control system in an animal model. Background: Access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains a challenge in acute myocardial infarction management. The combination of telemedicine and robotic PCI allow the potential delivery of primary PCI to remote locations without the delay of transfer. Methods: This single-center prospective pilot preclinical feasibility study compared robotic PCI with remote PCI on swine across three stages (adjacent room, different floor of the same building, two different buildings). Latency up to 1,000 ms was introduced into the operating environment to simulate decreased network quality (blinded to operator). The primary outcome measures were technical success and acute safety. The secondary outcome measures included lesion wiring time, procedural time and qualitative scoring of the PCI experience by the operator. Results: Across 52 experiments in 15 animals, technical success was 100%. No procedural complications occurred during the study. No significant difference in lesion treatment time was detected between stages (p =.11) and between time per target vessel when latency up to 1,000 ms was introduced (p =.58). Injected delay >250 ms had the greatest impact on procedure perceived lag. Longer procedure time was associated with lower procedure impact score, regardless of injected latency. Conclusions: Remote robotic PCI was feasible and safe in an animal model. Procedural duration was acceptable and unaffected by network latency. Future studies are needed to determine the safety and feasibility of remote PCI in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E274-E279
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 15 2021


  • acute myocardial infarction/STEMI
  • animal models
  • interventional devices/innovation
  • percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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