Reference values for jitter recorded by concentric needle electrodes in healthy controls: A multicenter study

Erik Stålberg, Donald B. Sanders, Sajjad Ali, Gerald Cooray, Lea Leonardis, Sissel Löseth, Flavia Machado, Antonio Maldonado, Carmen Martinez-Aparicio, Arne Sandberg, Benn Smith, Johan Widenfalk, João Aris Kouyoumdjian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Introduction: The aim of this study was to create reference values for jitter measured with concentric needle electrodes. Methods: Operators worldwide contributed recordings from orbicularis oculi (OO), frontalis (FR), and extensor digitorum (ED) muscles in healthy controls. Criteria for acceptable signal quality were agreed upon in advance. Fifteen or 20 recordings of acceptable quality from each muscle were required for voluntary and electrical stimulation recordings, respectively. Results: Recordings from 59 to 92 subjects were obtained for each muscle and activation type. Outlier limits for mean consecutive difference and individual jitter data for voluntary activation were: OO, 31 and 45 μs; FR, 28 and 38 μs; ED, 30 and 43 μs; and for electrical stimulation they were: OO, 27 and 36 μs; FR, 21 and 28 μs; ED, 24 and 35 μs. Conclusion: Reference jitter values from concentric needle electrode recordings were developed from signals of defined quality while seeking to avoid creating supernormal values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)351-362
Number of pages12
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Concentric needle electrode
  • Healthy controls
  • Jitter
  • Reference material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


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