Reference point indentation

Adolfo Diez-Perez, Joshua Farr

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Fracture is the clinical event in osteoporosis that induces morbidity and mortality. Bone strength depends on three basic components: amount of mineral; architecture; and tissue characteristics. However, a minimally invasive technique called reference point indentation (RPI) has been developed as a novel, feasible measurement of the mechanical properties of bone at the tissue level. The two RPI techniques, cyclic reference point indentation (cRPI) and impact reference point indentation (iRPI), differ in their loading rates and patterns and use of test probes that have slightly different diameters. Several preclinical studies have been performed using cRPI in various animal models, including mice, rats, pigs, and dogs. Clearly, additional preclinical studies are needed to establish optimal protocols for preclinical testing and to determine whether cRPI is a reliable technology for assessing in vivo bone material properties in various animal models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPrimer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781119266594
ISBN (Print)9781119266563
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone tissue
  • Clinical event
  • Osteoporosis
  • Preclinical studies
  • Reference point indentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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