Receptors and signaling in the innate immune system

W. K.Eddie Ip, Guillaume Charriere, Hyun Cho Ju, R. Alan B. Ezekowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: In this review, we highlight the current conceptual framework for innate immunity. Recent findings: We highlight the interactions of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, non-Toll-like membrane-bound pattern recognition receptors, and intracellular sensors neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1-leucine-rich repeat (NLRs). Toll-like receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate signaling pathways that induce the expression of immune and proinflammatory genes. Toll-like receptors use overlapping signaling pathways that largely depend on intracellular adaptor molecules. Recent evidence suggests that non-Toll-like membrane-bound pattern recognition receptors such as dectin-1, CD36, and CD14 collaborate with Toll-like receptors in pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition or use Toll-like receptors as signaling partners. NLRs, whose function is to detect intracellular pathogen-associated molecular patterns, also share the signaling pathways used by some Toll-like receptors, suggesting cooperation and synergy between NLRs and Toll-like receptors. Summary: The integration of signals generated from Toll-like receptors and other non-Toll-like receptors might instruct the nature and outcome of the immune response to a particular pathogen. This has implications for inflammatory diseases and host defense, because understanding these precise interactions presents novel targets for specific therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-333
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent opinion in organ transplantation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Innate immunity
  • Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain containing proteins (NODs)
  • Toll-like receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Transplantation


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