Recent advances in 3D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography

Stephen J. Riederer, Clifton R. Haider, Eric A. Borisch, Paul T. Weavers, Phillip M. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) was first introduced for clinical studies approximately 20 years ago. Early work provided 3-4 mm spatial resolution with acquisition times in the 30-second range. Since that time there has been continuing effort to provide improved spatial resolution with reduced acquisition time, allowing high resolution 3D time-resolved studies. The purpose of this work is to describe how this has been accomplished. Specific technical enablers have been: improved gradients allowing reduced repetition times, improved k-space sampling and reconstruction methods, parallel acquisition, particularly in two directions, and improved and higher count receiver coil arrays. These have collectively made high-resolution time-resolved studies readily available for many anatomic regions. Depending on the application, ∼1 mm isotropic resolution is now possible with frame times of several seconds. Clinical applications of time-resolved CE-MRA are briefly reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-22
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • MRA
  • contrast-enhanced MRA
  • fast imaging
  • parallel imaging
  • time-resolved studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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