Real-Time Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Intraoperative Assessment of Mitral Valve Disease

Jasmine Grewal, Sunil Mankad, William K. Freeman, Roger L. Click, Rakesh M. Suri, Martin D. Abel, Jae K. Oh, Patricia A. Pellikka, Gillian C. Nesbitt, Imran Syed, Sharon L. Mulvagh, Fletcher A. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Scopus citations


Background: The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography in the intraoperative assessment of mitral valve (MV) pathology and to compare this novel technique with 2-dimensional (2D) transesophageal echocardiography. Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing MV repair for mitral regurgitation (MR) were studied prospectively. Intraoperative 2D and 3D transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examinations were performed using a recently introduced TEE probe that provides real-time 3D imaging. Expert echocardiographers blinded to 2D TEE findings assessed the etiology of MR on 3D transesophageal echocardiography. Similarly, experts blinded to 3D TEE findings assessed 2D TEE findings. Both were compared with the anatomic findings reported by the surgeon. Results: At the time of surgical inspection, ischemic MR was identified in 12% of patients, complex bileaflet myxomatous disease in 31%, and specific scallop disease in 55%. Three-dimensional TEE image acquisition was performed in a short period of time (60 ± 18 seconds) and was feasible in all patients, with optimal (36%) or good (33%) imaging quality in the majority of cases. Three-dimensional TEE imaging was superior to 2D TEE imaging in the diagnosis of P1, A2, A3, and bileaflet disease (P < .05). Conclusions: Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography is a feasible method for identifying specific MV pathology in the setting of complex disease and can be expeditiously used in the intraoperative evaluation of patients undergoing MV repair.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34-41
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • Diagnosis
  • Intraoperative
  • Mitral valve
  • Real-time 3D TEE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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