Real-time MRI monitoring of transcatheter hepatic artery contrast agent delivery in rabbits

Kent T. Sato, Andrew C. Larson, Thomas K. Rhee, Riad A. Salem, Albert A. Nemcek, Taofic Mounajjed, Tatjana Paunesku, Gayle Woloschak, Paul Nikolaides, Reed A. Omary

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Rationale and Objectives. We sought to test the hypothesis that transcatheter hepatic artery delivery of dilute gadolinium (Gd) in rabbits can be monitored in real-time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods. Catheters (2F) were inserted via a femoral access into the hepatic arteries of six New Zealand White rabbits under radiographic guidance. After transfer to a 1.5-T MRI scanner, 26 separate hepatic artery injections of 2 mL of 4% Gd and 14 sham injections were performed. Real-time imaging of all injections was acquired using two-dimensional projection inversion recovery-gradient echo. Films of these 40 injections, as well as 10 random repeats, were independently reviewed in a randomized, blinded fashion by two Certificate of Added Qualification-certified interventional radiologists. Observers reported (i) if Gd injection occurred and (ii) if so, the location of delivery. For each observer, we compared sensitivity/specificity for real-time visualization of contrast injection and accuracy of injection localization. Interobserver and intraobserver variability was assessed using the κ statistic. X-ray digital subtraction angiography was the gold standard for all MRI studies. Results. Both observers had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93%. Accuracy for intrahepatic contrast delivery was 77% for both observers. Accuracy for extrahepatic delivery was 92% and 96%, respectively. Both interobserver and intraobserver agreement was outstanding. Conclusions. In rabbits, MRI allows for accurate real-time monitoring of transcatheter hepatic artery delivery of contrast agent. Localization accuracy is higher outside the liver than within the liver. These results can be used as a baseline reference for comparing the accuracy of delivery of Gd-tagged therapies in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1342-1350
Number of pages9
JournalAcademic radiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2005


  • HCC
  • Interventional MRI
  • MRA
  • VXZ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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