Real-time adaptive motion correction in functional MRI

Christine C. Lee, Clifford R. Jack, Roger C. Grimm, Phillip J. Rossman, Joel P. Felmlee, Richard L. Ehman, Stephen J. Riederer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain is often degraded by bulk head motion. Algorithms that address this by retrospective re-registration of images in an fMRI time series are all fundamentally limited by any motion that occurs through-plane. Here, a technique is described that can account for such motion by prospective correction in real time. A navigator echo is used before every image acquisition to detect superior/inferior displacements of the head. The displacement information is then used to adjust the plane of excitation of the ensuing single-shot echo- planar fMRI axial image. These correction updates can be completed in 100 ms with motion sensitivity at least as small as 0.5 min. The efficacy of this method is documented in phantom and human studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-444
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1996


  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • motion correction
  • navigator echoes
  • real-time MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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