Randomized trial of lenalidomide versus observation in smoldering multiple myeloma

Sagar Lonial, Susanna Jacobus, Rafael Fonseca, Matthias Weiss, Shaji Kumar, Robert Z. Orlowski, Jonathan L. Kaufman, Abdulraheem M. Yacoub, Francis K. Buadi, Timothy O’Brien, Jeffrey V. Matous, Daniel M. Anderson, Robert V. Emmons, Anuj Mahindra, Lynne I. Wagner, Madhav V. Dhodapkar, S. Vincent Rajkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


PURPOSE Observation is the current standard of care for smoldering multiple myeloma. We hypothesized that early intervention with lenalidomide could delay progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial that assessed the efficacy of single-agent lenalidomide compared with observation in patients with intermediate- or high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide was administered orally at a dose of 25 mg on days 1 to 21 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression-free survival, with disease progression requiring the development of end-organ damage attributable to multiple myeloma and biochemical progression. RESULTS One hundred eighty-two patients were randomly assigned—92 patients to the lenalidomide arm and 90 to the observation arm. Median follow-up is 35 months. Response to therapy was observed in 50% (95% CI, 39% to 61%) of patients in the lenalidomide arm, with no responses in the observation arm. Progression-free survival was significantly longer with lenalidomide compared with observation (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.62; P = .002). One-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival was 98%, 93%, and 91% for the lenalidomide arm versus 89%, 76%, and 66% for the observation arm, respectively. Only six deaths have been reported, two in the lenalidomide arm versus four in the observation arm (hazard ratio for death, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.08 to 2.53). Grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic adverse events occurred in 25 patients (28%) on lenalidomide. CONCLUSION Early intervention with lenalidomide in smoldering multiple myeloma significantly delays progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma and the development of end-organ damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1137
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Apr 10 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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