Radiography of Implantable Devices

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Whether used for routine assessment of an implantable cardiac device or for troubleshooting, radiographic images of the system can be invaluable. Although the chest X-ray is the image most commonly assessed, other films, e.g. abdominal radiograph, may be needed if the device or lead(s) is placed in a nonthoracic position. In order to thoroughly assess a pacing, ICD, or CRT system, the radiograph must be approached in a systematic fashion. All of the necessary assessment steps are outlined and discussed in this chapter. Although standard X-ray images are sufficient for the vast majority of patients with implantable cardiac devices, some clinical situations may benefit from echocardiographic or CT evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiac Pacing, Defibrillation and Resynchronization
Subtitle of host publicationA Clinical Approach
Number of pages37
ISBN (Print)9780470658338
StatePublished - Dec 17 2012


  • CT imaging
  • Chest X-ray
  • Coronary sinus leads
  • Device radiography
  • Endocardial leads
  • Epicardial leads
  • Epicardial patches
  • Inadvertent left ventricular lead positioning
  • Insulation compression
  • Lead dislodgement
  • Lead fracture
  • Lead polarity
  • Loose set screw
  • Radiographic identifiers
  • Reel syndrome
  • Systematic approach
  • Twiddler's syndrome
  • Venous route

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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