Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RCIN), a leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure, is an acute decrease in renal function related to intravascular administration of iodinated radiocontrast agents. Though RCIN is relatively uncommon in patients without predisposing factors, patients with preexisting renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus and severe congestive heart failure are at increased risk for acute renal failure following radiocontrast. Three recently developed animal models have provided important insights into the pathophysiology of RCIN. Specifically, these studies have implicated transient renal ischemia, direct renal tubular toxicity and changes in glomerular capillary permeability as possible mediators of RCIN, and these pathophysiologic mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. There is currently no effective treatment for RCIN. Assuring adequate hydration may reduce the risk of RCIN. In addition, synthetic atrial natriuretic factor and/or mannitol are promising, but as yet unproven, approaches to the prophylaxis of RCIN.
|Number of pages
|Published - Jan 1 1992
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine