R2 advances in robotic-assisted spine surgery: comparative analysis of options, future directions, and bibliometric analysis of the literature

William Mualem, Chiduziem Onyedimma, Abdul Karim Ghaith, Sulaman Durrani, Ryan Jarrah, Rohin Singh, Cameron Zamanian, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Brett A. Freedman, Mohamad Bydon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Spine surgery has undergone rapid advancements over the past several decades with the emergence of robotic and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). While conventional MIS spine surgery has had relative success, its complication profile has warranted continued efforts to improve clinical outcomes. We discuss the functional, clinical, and financial aspects of four robotic options for spinal pathologies, namely ROSA, Mazor X, Da Vinci, and ExcelsiusGPS, and conduct a bibliometric analysis to better understand current trends and applications of these robots as the field of robotic spine surgery continues to grow. An extensive search of English-language published literature on robotic-assisted spinal surgery was performed in Elsevier’s Scopus database. A bibliometric analysis was then performed on the top 100 most cited papers. The search yielded articles regarding robotic-assisted spine surgery application, limitations, and functional outcomes secondary to spine pathology. Accuracy analyses of 1733 screw placements were reviewed. The top 100 papers were published between 1992 and 2020, with a significant increase from 2015 onwards. The top publishing institution was John Hopkins University (n = 8). The top contributing author was Dr. Isador H. Lieberman (n = 6). The USA (n = 34) had the most articles on robotic spinal surgery, followed by Germany (n = 12). This review examines robotic applications in spine surgery, including four available options: ROSA, Mazor X, Da Vinci, and ExcelsiusGPS. Publication output over time, surgical outcomes, screw accuracy, and cost-effectiveness of these technologies have been investigated here. Certain robots have functional, clinical, and financial differences worth noting. Given the dearth of existing literature reporting postoperative complications and long-term comparative outcomes, there is a clear need for further studies on this matter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number18
JournalNeurosurgical Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Degenerative disease
  • Robot
  • Spinal surgery
  • Spine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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