PYY and GLP-1 contribute to feedback inhibition from the canine ileum and colon

J. Wen, S. F. Phillips, M. G. Sarr, L. J. Kost, J. J. Holst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


To explore mechanisms whereby unabsorbed nutrients in the ileum inhibit the upper gut ('ileal brake'), we perfused the canine ileum or colon and monitored phase 3 in the duodenum. Fasting motility was recorded when the ileum or colon was perfused with 154 mM NaCl, a mixed isotonic nutrient solution (Ensure), or individual nutrients (maltose, casein hydrolysates, or sodium oleate). Blood samples were collected before and during the perfusions. The ileum was also perfused with 154 mM NaCl while peptide YY (PYY) was infused by vein. In both sets of experiments, plasma levels of PYY, neurotensin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Ileal or colonic perfusion of Ensure delayed phase 3 [migrating motor complexes (MMC)] in the duodenum, inhibited ileal motility, and increased plasma levels of PYY and GLP-1. Ileal casein and oleate and colonic casein also delayed the duodenal MMC. The MMC cycle length and plasma levels of PYY were closely correlated. Intravenous PYY prolonged the MMC cycle; an intravenous dose of 100 pmol · kg-1 · h-1 of PYY mimicked the effects of ileal Ensure. These results support the hypothesis that PYY, and possibly GLP-1, participate in the ileal brake. This negative feedback loop also affects the distal small bowel. The proximal colon also triggers the feedback inhibition of gut motility (colonic brake).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)G945-G952
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number6 32-6
StatePublished - 1995


  • colonic brake
  • duodenal migrating motor complexes
  • glucagon-like peptide-1
  • ileal brake
  • ileal motility
  • manometry
  • peptide YY

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)


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