Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Adjuvant and Systemic Treatments

Dipesh Uprety, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Julian R. Molina, Konstantinos Leventakos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon tumors accounting for 20 to 30% of all neuroendocrine tumors and about 1–2% of all cancers of pulmonary origin. Bronchial carcinoids are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and have a favorable survival outcome when compared with other subtypes of lung cancers. Treatment of bronchial carcinoids is not simple owing to intricacy of symptom presentation and heterogeneity of disease biology. Successful treatment of patients requires a multimodality approach. Resection is curative in the majority of patients with localized tumors and adjuvant treatment is not routinely recommended. Multiple options for systemic therapy exist for patients with advanced disease. To date, very few randomized clinical trials have been done, partly owing to the relative rarity of this malignancy. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are reasonable first-line choice for patients with tumors expressing somatostatin receptors. Everolimus is an appropriate first-line choice for somatostatin receptor negative tumors and for any patients with progressive disease. PRRT can also be considered for progressive tumors expressing somatostatin receptors. Based on retrospective series, cytotoxic chemotherapy can be selected in patients with progressive tumors, primarily when cytoreduction is needed. Herein, we will discuss evidence supporting the role of adjuvant and systemic treatment therapies for those with bronchial carcinoid tumors by focusing on various studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number86
JournalCurrent treatment options in oncology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020


  • Adjuvant
  • Carcinoids
  • Lung
  • Neuroendocrine
  • Pulmonary
  • Systemic treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Adjuvant and Systemic Treatments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this