Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor (MSP) is a rare benign spindle cell lesion containing acid-fact mycobacteria. These lesions are most commonly identified in the lymph nodes, skin, spleen, or bone marrow of immunocompromised patients and only rarely involve the lungs. We report 3 cases of pulmonary MSP, which include 2 patients who are known to be HIV-positive. The histopathological diagnosis of MSP in the lung lends itself to many challenges due to its rare incidence and its spindled tumor-like appearance. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and malignant entities. We highlight the importance of the clinical context in which these lesions typically present and the morphologic spectrum of features seen, and we offer a practical approach to the workup of pulmonary mycobacterial pseudotumor. Appropriate recognition of this entity should lead to an accurate diagnosis of a treatable benign condition despite the clinical presentation often favoring malignancy.
- Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare
- atypical mycobacteria
- pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine