Psychosocial outcomes 1-7 years after comprehensive milieu-oriented neurorehabilitation: The role of pre-injury status

Pamela S. Klonoff, Lisa M. Watt, Lauren K. Dawson, Steven W. Henderson, Jo Ann Gehrels, Jennifer Voreis Wethe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Primary objective: To explore pre-injury variables related to post-discharge psychosocial status and identify factors related to work and driving outcomes. Methods and procedures: Ninety-three brain-injured patients attended a holistic milieu-oriented neurorehabilitation program and were contacted 1-7 years post-discharge. Experimental interventions: Questionnaire data addressing pre-injury and post-injury work, driving, income, marital status and living situation. Main outcomes and results: 74.3% were involved in competitive work and/or school with 86.0% productive at follow-up. Post-injury income decreased significantly compared with pre-injury levels. Pre-injury relationship status did not differ significantly from post-injury; 81.1% remaining in a stable relationship or married at follow-up. Pre-injury and post-injury accident rates were related; 73.1% drove at follow-up. Higher education, non-right hemispheric injury, shorter treatment length and return to work related to driving. Younger age, higher education, non-right hemispheric injury and driving post-injury related to positive work status. Conclusions: Pre-injury psychosocial data provide an important context for understanding post-discharge outcome after brain injury. Holistic milieu-oriented rehabilitation facilitates long-term successful work, driving and relationship stability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-612
Number of pages12
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Brain injury
  • Driving
  • Neurorehabilitation
  • Outcome
  • Work

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology


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