Proteomic assessment of humoral immune responses in smallpox vaccine recipients

Richard B. Kennedy, Inna G. Ovsyannikova, Iana H. Haralambieva, Diane E. Grill, Gregory A. Poland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The availability of effective smallpox vaccines was a critical element of the successful eradication of smallpox in 1980. Antibody responses play a primary role in protective immunity and neutralizing antibody is an established correlate of protection against smallpox. In this study we used a poxvirus proteome array to assess the antibody response to individual viral proteins in a cohort of 1,037 smallpox vaccine recipients. Several statistically significant differences were observed in the antibody response to immunodominant proteins between men and women, including B5R—a major target of neutralizing antibody in vaccinia immune globulin, and the membrane proteins D8L and A27L, both of which have been used as vaccine antigens providing protection in animal models. We also noted differences across racial/ethnic groups. In this cohort, which consisted of both ACAM2000 and Dryvax recipients, we noted minute differences in the antibody responses to a restricted number of viral proteins, providing additional support for the use of ACAM2000 as a replacement smallpox vaccine. Furthermore, our data indicate that poxvirus proteome microarrays can be valuable for screening and monitoring smallpox vaccine-induced humoral immune responses in large-scale serologic surveillance studies and prove useful in the guidance of developing novel smallpox candidate vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)789-797
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 31 2022


  • Antibodies
  • Humoral
  • Immunity
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Neutralizing
  • Smallpox
  • Smallpox Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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