Proteinuria is common among HIV patients: What are we missing?

Vicente Sperb Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira Antonello, Sandra Herrmann, Cristiane Valle Tovo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: HIV-related renal diseases are the leading causes of chronic kidney diseases worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pathological proteinuria and its risk factors among HIV patients. METHODS: A review of the medical records of 666 HIV-infected individuals aged 18 years or older in an urban HIV/ AIDS clinic based in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Overt proteinuria was defined as a protein-to-creatinine ratio greater than 150 mg/g according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of pathological proteinuria in the present study cohort was 20%. Characteristics associated with pathological proteinuria after univariate analysis included alcohol abuse, hepatitis C virus coinfection, the occurrence of diabetes and therapy including tenofovir. Adjusted residuals analysis indicated an association between pathological proteinuria and both a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3 and a viral load higher than 1000 copies/mL. Additionally, an absence of pathological proteinuria was associated with a CD4 lymphocyte count higher than 500 cells/mm3. After adjustment for variables with p<0.2 in the univariate analysis using a Poisson regression model, tenofovir-containing regimens and a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3 were significantly associated with pathological proteinuria. CONCLUSION: The risk of chronic kidney diseases in this large contemporary cohort of HIV-infected individuals appeared to be attributable to a combination of HIV-related risk factors. In addition to the traditional risk factors cited in the literature, both regimens containing tenofovir and HIV disease severity seem to be associated with chronic kidney diseases in patients with HIV. Assessment of proteinuria constitutes a novel method for chronic kidney disease staging in HIV-infected individuals and may be effectively used to stratify the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-695
Number of pages5
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2015


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Epidemiology
  • HIV
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Proteinuria
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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