Studies on the genetic basis of prostate cancer (PCa) have lead to mixed results with the only consensus being that PCa is a complex disease. Our goal was to gain insight into potential events involved in the acquisition of the androgen-refractory phenotype in PCa cells regardless of DNA-change dependence. To this end, we examined two LNCaP PCa cell line models of progression-one developed in vivo and one developed in vitro-using molecular cytogenetic and microarray gene expression analyses and extended this investigation of specific events into PCa tumors. The chromosomal changes observed in both in vivo and in vitro androgen-independent cell lines are similar to those seen in PCa during tumor progression. Correspondingly, gene expression analysis showed significant heterogeneity in the genes expressed among androgen-independent cells, but with some common gene expression changes that correlated with the acquired androgen-independent phenotype. Thus, growth conditions under which the cells progress appeared to impact the mechanisms used for progression, albeit within tumor-type-specific pathways. Our findings suggest that a dynamic and adaptable combination of epigenetic and DNA-change-dependent events can be used by PCa cells for the acquisition of the androgen-independent phenotype. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/ jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research