Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis: Distinct Entity or Age-Dependent Phenomena

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19 Scopus citations


In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease course is defined by a subclinical or clinical relapsing remitting phase, a progressive phase, and the overlapping phase in-between. Each phase can have intermittently active or inactive periods. Subclinical activity in radiologically isolated syndrome evolving to primary-progressive MS is mostly indistinguishable from relapsing-remitting MS evolving to secondary-progressive MS. The onset of progressive-phase MS is age-dependent but time and pre-progressive phase agnostic. Pathologic hallmarks of progressive MS onset also appear to be age-dependent but pre-progressive phase agnostic. Onset of progressive MS is characterized by a peak in smoldering plaques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-171
Number of pages9
JournalNeurologic clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • Aging
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Progression
  • Smoldering plaque

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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