Gain of 1q22 at diagnosis portends poorer outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM), but the prognostic significance of acquired 1q22 gain is unknown. We identified 63 MM patients seen at Mayo Clinic from 1/2004 to 12/2019 without 1q22 gain at diagnosis who acquired it during follow up and compared them to 63 control patients who did not acquire 1q22 gain with similar follow up. We also compared outcomes in the acquired 1q22 gain group with outcomes in 126 patients with 1q22 gain present at diagnosis. The incidence of acquired 1q22 gain was 6.1% (median follow-up 6.8 years); median time to acquisition was 5.0 years (range: 0.7–11.5 years). Abnormalities on baseline fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) included trisomies (54%) and monosomy 13 (39%); 16 (25%) had high-risk (HR) translocations or del(17p). Median progression-free survival with front line therapy was 29.5 months in patients with acquired 1q22 gain, versus 31.4 months in control patients (p =.34) and 31.2 months in patients with de novo 1q22 gain (p =.04). Median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was 10.9 years in patients with acquired 1q22 gain, versus 13.0 years in control patients (p =.03) and 6.3 years in patients with de novo 1q22 gain (p =.01). Presence of HR FISH at baseline increased risk of 1q22 gain acquisition. We demonstrate that acquisition of 1q22 gain is a significant molecular event in MM, associated with reduced OS. Among HR patients for whom this clonal evolution is determined, a risk-adapted approach and/or clinical trial should be considered.
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