Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension: High Perioperative Mortality and Complications

Courtney E. Baker, Brian P. Chalmers, Michael J. Taunton, Hilal Maradit Kremers, Adam W. Amundson, Daniel J. Berry, Matthew P. Abdel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Although perioperative medical management during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has improved, there is limited literature characterizing outcomes of patients with pulmonary hypertension (HTN). This study examined mortality, medical complications, implant survivorship, and clinical outcomes in this medically complex cohort. Methods: We identified 887 patients with pulmonary HTN who underwent 881 primary TKAs and 228 revision TKAs from 2000 to 2016 at a tertiary care center. Patients were followed up at regular intervals until death, revision surgery, or last clinical follow-up. Perioperative medical complications were individually reviewed. The risk of death was examined by calculating standardized mortality ratios and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Cumulative incidence analysis was used for reporting mortality, revision, and reoperation with death as a competing risk. Results: The 90-day mortality was 0.7% and 4.8% for primary and revision TKAs, respectively. The risk of death was 2-fold higher compared to primary (hazard ratio 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-3.05) and revision (hazard ratio 2.16, 95% CI 1.78-2.62) TKA patients without pulmonary HTN. Rate of medical complications within 90 days from surgery was 6.5% and 14% in primary and revision TKAs. The 10-year cumulative incidence of any revision was 5% and 16% in primaries and revisions, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with pulmonary HTN undergoing primary and revision TKAs had excess risk of death and experience a high rate of medical complications within 90 days of surgery. Counseling of risks, medical optimization, and referral to tertiary centers should be considered. Level of Evidence: Level IV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3760-3764
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • complications
  • mortality
  • pulmonary hypertension
  • revision total knee arthroplasty
  • total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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