Prevalence and clinical characteristics of age-related distance esotropia

Matthew R. Claxton, Genie M. Bang, Jennifer Martinez-Thompson, David O. Hodge, Brian G. Mohney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Age-related distance esotropia (ARDET) is characterized by an esodeviation greater at distance than near in older aged patients and generally managed with prism spectacles or surgery. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and natural history of age-related distance esotropia in a defined population. The medical records of all adult (≥19 years of age) residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with an esodeviation at least 2 prism diopters (PD) greater at distance than near, from 1 January 1985, through 31 December 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-three (9.7%) of 751 new cases of adult-onset strabismus were diagnosed with age-related distance esotropia during the 20-year period. The mean age of onset was 70 years (range, 19 to 93 years) and 48 (65.8%) were female (p =.007). The mean angle of esodeviation was 7.6 (range, 2 to 20) prism diopters (PD) at distance and 0.4 (range, 10 PD of XT to 12 PD of ET) PD at near. The Kaplan–Meier rate of progression, as defined by a ≥ 6 prism diopter (PD) increase in esotropia, was 50% by 15 years after diagnosis. Half of the patients had hypertension, while one-third had coronary artery disease or other cardiac comorbidities. Age-related distance esotropia comprised 1 in 10 adults with new-onset strabismus in this population and was significantly more common among women. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease may be risk factors for this form of strabismus, and approximately half of the patients worsened over a 15-year period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-120
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022


  • Adult
  • distance esotropia
  • divergence insufficiency
  • esotropia
  • strabismus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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