Predicting Oncologic Outcomes in Renal Cell Carcinoma After Surgery

Bradley C. Leibovich, Christine M. Lohse, John C. Cheville, Harras B. Zaid, Stephen A. Boorjian, Igor Frank, R. Houston Thompson, William P. Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Background: Predicting oncologic outcomes is important for patient counseling, clinical trial design, and biomarker study testing. Objective: To develop prognostic models for progression-free (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary RCC (papRCC), and chromophobe RCC (chrRCC). Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective cohort review of the Mayo Clinic Nephrectomy registry from 1980 to 2010, for patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC, papRCC, and chrRCC. Intervention: Partial or radical nephrectomy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: PFS and CSS from date of surgery. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to develop parsimonious models based on clinicopathologic features to predict oncologic outcomes and were evaluated with c-indexes. Models were converted into risk scores/groupings and used to predict PFS and CSS rates after accounting for competing risks. Results and limitations: A total of 3633 patients were identified, of whom 2726 (75%) had ccRCC, 607 (17%) had papRCC, and 222 (6%) had chrRCC. Models were generated for each histologic subtype and a risk score/grouping was developed for each subtype and outcome (PFS/CSS). For PFS, the c-indexes were 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 for ccRCC, papRCC, and chrRCC, respectively. For CSS, c-indexes were 0.86 and 0.83 for ccRCC and papRCC. Due to only 22 deaths from RCC, we did not assess a multivariable model for chrRCC. Limitations include the single institution study, lack of external validation, and its retrospective nature. Conclusions: Using a large institutional experience, we generated specific prognostic models for oncologic outcomes in ccRCC, papRCC, and chrRCC that rely on features previously shown—and validated—to be associated with survival. These updated models should inform patient prognosis, biomarker design, and clinical trial enrollment. Patient summary: We identified routinely available clinical and pathologic features that can accurately predict progression and death from renal cell carcinoma following surgery. These updated models should inform patient prognosis, biomarker design, and clinical trial enrollment. We found that oncologic outcomes after surgery for renal cell carcinoma differ based on primary histology and are affected by clinicopathologic features. These features allow for the prediction of oncologic outcomes and can serve to guide patient counseling and future study design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)772-780
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Prediction models
  • Prognosis
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Surgery
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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