Predicting 30-Day All-Cause Hospital Readmission Using Multimodal Spatiotemporal Graph Neural Networks

Siyi Tang, Amara Tariq, Jared A. Dunnmon, Umesh Sharma, Praneetha Elugunti, Daniel L. Rubin, Bhavik N. Patel, Imon Banerjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reduction in 30-day readmission rate is an important quality factor for hospitals as it can reduce the overall cost of care and improve patient post-discharge outcomes. While deep-learning-based studies have shown promising empirical results, several limitations exist in prior models for hospital readmission prediction, such as: (a) only patients with certain conditions are considered, (b) do not leverage data temporality, (c) individual admissions are assumed independent of each other, which ignores patient similarity, (d) limited to single modality or single center data. In this study, we propose a multimodal, spatiotemporal graph neural network (MM-STGNN) for prediction of 30-day all-cause hospital readmission, which fuses in-patient multimodal, longitudinal data and models patient similarity using a graph. Using longitudinal chest radiographs and electronic health records from two independent centers, we show that MM-STGNN achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.79 on both datasets. Furthermore, MM-STGNN significantly outperformed the current clinical reference standard, LACE+ (AUROC = 0.61), on the internal dataset. For subset populations of patients with heart disease, our model significantly outperformed baselines, such as gradient-boosting and Long Short-Term Memory models (e.g., AUROC improved by 3.7 points in patients with heart disease). Qualitative interpretability analysis indicated that while patients' primary diagnoses were not explicitly used to train the model, features crucial for model prediction may reflect patients' diagnoses. Our model could be utilized as an additional clinical decision aid during discharge disposition and triaging high-risk patients for closer post-discharge follow-up for potential preventive measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2071-2082
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2023


  • Graph neural network
  • chest radiographs
  • hospital readmission prediction
  • multimodal fusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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