Practicing Digital Gastroenterology through Phonoenterography Leveraging Artificial Intelligence: Future Perspectives Using Microwave Systems

Renisha Redij, Avneet Kaur, Pratyusha Muddaloor, Arshia K. Sethi, Keirthana Aedma, Anjali Rajagopal, Keerthy Gopalakrishnan, Ashima Yadav, Devanshi N. Damani, Victor G. Chedid, Xiao Jing Wang, Christopher A. Aakre, Alexander J. Ryu, Shivaram P. Arunachalam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Production of bowel sounds, established in the 1900s, has limited application in existing patient-care regimes and diagnostic modalities. We review the physiology of bowel sound production, the developments in recording technologies and the clinical application in various scenarios, to understand the potential of a bowel sound recording and analysis device—the phonoenterogram in future gastroenterological practice. Bowel sound production depends on but is not entirely limited to the type of food consumed, amount of air ingested and the type of intestinal contractions. Recording technologies for extraction and analysis of these include the wavelet-based filtering, autoregressive moving average model, multivariate empirical mode decompression, radial basis function network, two-dimensional positional mapping, neural network model and acoustic biosensor technique. Prior studies evaluate the application of bowel sounds in conditions such as intestinal obstruction, acute appendicitis, large bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and bowel polyps, ascites, post-operative ileus, sepsis, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and neonatal conditions such as hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Recording and analysis of bowel sounds using artificial intelligence is crucial for creating an accessible, inexpensive and safe device with a broad range of clinical applications. Microwave-based digital phonoenterography has huge potential for impacting GI practice and patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2302
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • PEG
  • artificial intelligence
  • bowel sounds
  • computer-aided auscultation
  • digital health
  • gastroenterology
  • microwave acoustic sensors
  • microwave telemetry
  • phonoenterogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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