Cells of the monocyte lineage can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) both during clinical infection and in vitro. The ability of HIV-1-based vectors to transduce human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) was therefore examined, in order to develop an efficient protocol for antigen gene delivery to human antigen-presenting cells. Freshly isolated monocytes were refractory to HIV-1-based vector transduction but became transducible after in vitro differentiation to mature macrophages. This maturation-dependent transduction was independent of the HIV-1 accessory proteins Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef in the packaging cells and of the central polypurine tract in the vector, and it was also observed with a vesicular stomatitis virus-pseudotyped HIV-1 provirus, defective only in envelope and Nef. The level and extent of reverse transcription of the HIV-1-based vector was similar after infection of immature monocytes and of mature macrophages. However, 2LTR vector circles could not be detected in monocytes, suggesting a block to vector nuclear entry in these cells. Transduction of freshly isolated monocytes exposed to HIV-1-based vector could be rescued by subsequent differentiation into DCs. This rescue was induced by fetal calf serum in the DC culture medium, which promoted vector nuclear entry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science