Pixel-Oriented Adaptive Apodization for Plane-Wave Imaging Based on Recovery of the Complete Dataset

Qi You, Zhijie Dong, Matthew R. Lowerison, Pengfei Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In theory, coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) enables ultrafast ultrasound imaging while maintaining a high imaging quality that is comparable to conventional B-mode imaging based on focused beam transmissions. However, in practice, due to the imperfect synthetization of transmit focusing (e.g., heterogeneous speed of sound in tissue and limited range of steering angle), CPWC suffers from a variety of imaging artifacts resulting from side lobes, grating lobes, and axial lobes. This study focuses on addressing the issues of axial lobes for CPWC, which constitutes an important source of clutter that leads to the degradation of contrast ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CR and CNR) of CPWC. We first investigated the source of the axial lobes based on plane-wave propagation and the delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming. We then proposed a new method that is based on pixel-oriented adaptive apodization (POAA) to eliminate the axial lobes throughout the entire field of view (FOV). POAA was first validated in a simulation study, followed by <italic>in vitro</italic> phantom experiments and an <italic>in vivo</italic> case study on a carotid artery from a healthy volunteer. In the simulation study, suppression of axial lobes by 120 dB was observed from wire targets, and an improvement of CNR by up to 60% was found in a cyst-mimicking digital phantom. In the phantom experiment, POAA showed an improvement in CNR by around 20% over conventional methods. The effectiveness of axial lobe suppression was finally demonstrated <italic>in vivo</italic>, where POAA showed a substantial suppression of clutters throughout the entire FOV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-522
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Array signal processing
  • Delays
  • Encoding
  • Gratings
  • Imaging
  • Transducers
  • Ultrasonic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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