Physiological consideration of muscle force distribution

Kenton R. Kaufman, Kai Nan An, Edmond Y.S. Chao, William J. Litchy

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


An analytical model for the determination of muscle forces under isometric loading conditions has been developed. The muscle length-tension as a function of the muscle architecture was developed and included in the model. The upper bound for each of the muscle forces was calculated from the muscle stress, physiological cross-sectional area, normalized muscle force (both active and passive), and the muscle activation level. The muscle force distribution under a given loading condition was achieved by minimizing the activation level of the muscles. Applications of the model for the analyses of muscle force involving multiple joints or a single joint with multiple degrees of freedom were also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1033
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1989
EventAbstracts of the XII Congress, International Society of Biomechanics - Los Angeles, CA, USA
Duration: Jun 26 1989Jun 30 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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