Physical Activity and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Mild Hypertensives

Mikolaj Winnicki, Valentina Accurso, Michal Hoffmann, Ryszard Pawlowski, Francesca Dorigatti, Massimo Santonastaso, Daniele Longo, Barbara Krupa-Wojciechowska, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Achille C. Pessina, Virend K. Somers, Paolo Palatini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


It has been suggested that the insertion(I) allele of the I/deletion(D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with endurance exercise and increased physical conditioning in response to this type of exercise. To investigate the association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and physical activity status in 355 never treated, stage I hypertensives (265 men, 90 women, mean age: 33 ± 9 years), in whom power exercise is contraindicated, participants of the HARVEST study. Physical activity was assessed using a standardized questionnaire. BMI and age did not vary among genotypes. None of active subjects performed power oriented exercises. ACE I/D frequencies (II-18%,ID-55%,DD-27%) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Sedentary lifestyle was more common among DD than II hypertensives (76% in DD, and 48% in II, χ2 = 13.9, P=0.001). In stepwise MANOVA using age, marital status, profession, sex, and ACE genotype as predictors of physical activity, marital status (F = 24.4, P < 0.0001) and ACE genotype (F = 16.03, P < 0.0001) contributed to more than 50% of the variance in physical activity status of the population. Our results suggest that the ACE I/D polymorphism may be a specific genetic factor associated with physical activity levels in free-living borderline and mild hypertensive subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics
Volume125 A
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 15 2004


  • Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism
  • Endurance
  • Mild hypertensives
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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