Phase I trial of tirapazamine and cyclophosphamide in children with refractory solid tumors: A pediatric oncology group study

Victor M. Aquino, Steve D. Weittnan, Naomi J. Winick, Susan Blaney, Wayne L. Furman, James L. Kepner, Peter Bonate, Mark Krailo, Wenchun Qu, Mark Bernstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetic profile of tirapazamine (Sanofi Synthelabo Research, Malvern, PA) combined with cyclophosphamide in children with recurrent solid tumors. Patients and Methods: Patients received a 2-hour infusion of tirapazamine, followed by 1,500 mg/m2 Cyclophosphamide, and mesna once every 3 weeks. Dose escalation of tirapazamine began at 250 mg/m 2 and was increased by 30% in subsequent cohorts. If DLT was hematologic, less-heavily pretreated patients were to be enrolled until their DLTs were encountered, and MTDs defined. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also characterized. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled onto the study. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated for 22 patients. Prolonged neutropenia was the DLT at 420 mg/m2 in heavily pretreated patients. Grade 3, reversible ototoxicity was the DLT in less-heavily pretreated patients at 420 mg/m2. Two (one with neuroblastoma and one with rhabdomyosarcoma) had partial responses. One child with neuroblastoma had prolonged stable disease (10 cycles) at a dose of 250 mg/m2. This patient had disease detectable in the bone marrow only and all evidence of bone marrow involvement resolved for 17 cycles of therapy. Four other patients had stable disease. An apparent dose-proportional increase in tirapazamine maximal concentration and area under the curvelast was observed. Tirapazamine clearance, volume of distribution at steady-state, and terminal half-life did not appear to be dose-dependent. Conclusion: The recommended dose of tirapazamine given with 1,500 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide once every 3 weeks is 325 mg/m 2. Neutropenia and ototoxicity were dose-limiting. Based on early evidence of antitumor activity, additional studies appear warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1413-1419
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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