PET/CT and PET/MRI in neuroendocrine neoplasms

Naveen Rajamohan, Hala Khasawneh, Aparna Singh, Garima Suman, Geoffrey B. Johnson, Shounak Majumder, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Ajit H. Goenka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Advanced molecular imaging has come to play an integral role in the management of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) PET has now emerged as the reference standard for the evaluation of NENs and is particularly critical in the context of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) eligibility. SSTR PET/MRI with liver-specific contrast agent has a strong potential for one-stop-shop multiparametric evaluation of GEP-NENs. 18F-FDG is a complementary radiotracer to SSTR, especially in the context of high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms. Knowledge gaps in quantitative evaluation of molecular imaging studies and their role in assessment of response to PRRT and combination therapies are active research areas. Novel radiotracers have the potential to overcome existing limitations in the molecular imaging of GEP-NENs. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current trends, pitfalls, and recent advancements of molecular imaging for GEP-NENs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4058-4072
Number of pages15
JournalAbdominal Radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • Gallium radioisotopes
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Positron emission tomography-computed tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology
  • Urology


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