Perioperative Tranexamic Acid for ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas: Implementation Protocol Results and Trial Prospectus

Christopher S. Graffeo, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Salomon Cohen Cohen, Avital Perry, Garret Choby, Jamie J. Van Gompel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Primary resection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma has become a front-line standard-of-care treatment for Cushing disease. However, surgical intervention can be challenging because of elevated blood pressure, as well as direct cortisol impacts on endothelial cells, vascular permeability, and tissue friability—potentially resulting in increased intraoperative bleeding. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a well-studied, widely used intravenous hemostatic; however, the potential benefit during resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma is unstudied. The purpose of this study was to define an institutional protocol for perioperative administration of TXA in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and to study the implementation of our novel protocol in a prospective fashion. Methods: Criteria for preoperative TXA were defined by age, medical history, and risk factors. Descriptive statistics were reported for all patients receiving perioperative TXA. Results: Thirty patients met inclusion criteria and underwent perioperative administration of TXA, using a standardized dosing protocol of a 10 mg/kg bolus in 30 minutes prior to incision, followed by maintenance infusion of 2 mg/kg/hour for the duration of the procedure. No incidence of myocardial infarction or postoperative thromboembolic events were noted. Subjective assessments indicated satisfaction with the patient selection protocol, and meaningful reduction in the extent of intraoperative bleeding. Conclusions: Perioperative TXA represents a potentially efficacious approach for control of intraoperative bleeding during endonasal resection of ACTH-secreting tumors. Careful preoperative patient selection is emphasized, given the potential for thromboembolic complications; however, initial experience with our institutional protocol suggests a favorable risk/benefit profile when this treatment is applied judiciously.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e359-e364
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • ACTH
  • Cushing disease
  • Endoscopic endonasal
  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Tranexamic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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