Perceived barriers to career progression in the headache field: A global web-based cross-sectional survey

on behalf of the International Headache Society Women’s Leadership Forum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: It is well recognized that underrepresented and minoritized groups do not have the same career opportunities. However, there are limited data on the range and specifics of potential barriers that withhold people in headache medicine and science from reaching their full potential. Moreover, people from different geographical regions often perceive different challenges. We aimed to identify world-wide perceived career barriers and possibilities for promoting equality amongst professionals in the headache fields. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among professionals in the field of headache globally. The questions of the survey were aimed at assessing perceived career barriers in four domains: professional recognition, opportunities in scientific societies, clinical practice, and salary and compensation. Perceived mentorship was also assessed. Results: In total 580 responders completed the survey (55.3% women). Gender was the most important perceived barrier in almost all domains. Additionally, country of birth emerged as an important barrier to participation in international scientific societies. Career barriers varied across world regions. Conclusion: It is essential that longstanding and ongoing disparities by gender and country of origin for professionals in the headache field are globally acknowledged and addressed in areas of recruitment, retention, opportunities, mentor- and sponsorships, and advancement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1498-1509
Number of pages12
Issue number14
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Disparities
  • career
  • compensation
  • mentorship
  • nationality
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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