Perceived Age in Patients Exposed to Distinct UV Indexes: A Systematic Review

Francisco R. Avila, Rickey E. Carter, Christopher J. McLeod, Charles J. Bruce, Davide Giardi, Gunel Guliyeva, Ricardo A. Torres-Guzman, Karla C. Maita, Antonio J. Forte

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Photodamage is caused by chronic sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation and presents as wrinkles, sagging, and pigmented spots. An increase in the ultraviolet index can increase a person's perceived age by worsening skin photodamage. However, since the ultraviolet index varies considerably between geographical regions, perceived age might vary substantially among them. This review aims to describe the differences in chronological and perceived age in regions of the world with different ultraviolet indexes. A literature search of three databases was conducted for studies analyzing perceived age and its relationship to sun exposure. Ultraviolet indexes from the included studies were retrieved from the National Weather Service and the Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service. Out of 104 studies, seven fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, 3,352 patients were evaluated for perceived age. All studies found that patients with the highest daily sun exposures had the highest perceived ages for their chronological age (p < 0.05). People with high sun exposure behaviors living in regions with high ultraviolet indexes will look significantly older than same-aged peers living in lower ultraviolet index regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIndian Journal of Plastic Surgery
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • geographical location
  • perceived age
  • photoaging
  • photodamage
  • ultraviolet light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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